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Minerva Pediatrica 2020 Apr 09

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05834-X

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Metabolic syndrome in children

Veronica M. TAGI, Sona SAMVELYAN, Francesco CHIARELLI

Department of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy


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Despite plenty of currently available information on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents, there are still uncertainties regarding definition, prevention, management and treatment of MetS in children. The first approach to MetS in children consists of lifestyle interventions (nutritional education, physical activity). These recommendations are often difficult to achieve, especially for adolescents, therefore, there is usually a lack of successful outcomes. A pharmacological intervention in obese children may be needed in some cases, with the aim to improve the effects of these primary prevention interventions. Metformin seems to be safe and presents evident positive effects on insulin sensitivity, but long-term and consistent data are still missing to establish its role in the paediatric population and the possible effectiveness of other emergent treatments such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, dual inhibitors of SGLT1 and SGLT2 and weight loss drugs. Bariatric surgery might be helpful in selected cases. The aim of this review is to present the most recent available treatments for the main components of metabolic syndrome, with a focus on insulin resistance. A short mention of management of congenital forms of insulin resistance will be included too.


KEY WORDS: Metabolic syndrome; Children; Insulin resistance; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Obesity

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