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REVIEW  MUSCULOSKELETAL TISSUE INJURIES AND REGENERATION 

Minerva Orthopedics 2022 February;73(1):56-62

DOI: 10.23736/S2784-8469.20.04025-4

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Muscle injury and regeneration: surgical approach

Piero VOLPI 1, 2, Gian N. BISCIOTTI 3

1 Internazionale FC Milano, Milan, Italy; 2 Humanitas Resarch Institute, Rozzano, Milan, Italy; 3 Paris Saint Germain FC, Paris, France



Injuries to the hamstring, quadriceps femoris, adductors and soleus-gastrocnemius complex account for 80-90% of all lower limb muscle injuries. In most part of the cases, conservative treatment gives excellent results but, in some selected cases, surgical treatment can be considered as an option. Concerning the hamstring, the surgical treatment is suggested in case of avulsion or complete tendon rupture with tendon retraction ≥2 cm and the acute versus chronic surgical repair is suggested. Most of the cases described in the literature concern massive lesions or avulsions of the proximal hamstrings. However, some studies describe rare distal biceps avulsions. Also concerning rectus femoris the surgical treatment may be adopted if the tendon retraction is ≥2 cm. However, in literature there is no consensus on the surgical technique to be adopted. For the adductor muscle massive injury or avulsion, the literature is mainly based on adductor longus injuries and is subdivided in “supporters” of surgical treatment and “supporters” of conservative treatment.” At our knowledge at today in literature, cases of surgical repair of the soleo-gastrocnenium muscle complex are not described. In conclusion, in light of the current state of the art in literature the surgical treatment must follow an “ad-personam” decision-making process based on the level of the athlete and his functional requests.


KEY WORDS: Lower extremity; Wonds and injuries; Avulsion fractures; Operative surgical procedures

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