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REVIEW  MUSCULOSKELETAL TISSUE INJURIES AND REGENERATION 

Minerva Orthopedics 2022 February;73(1):4-9

DOI: 10.23736/S2784-8469.21.04136-5

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Magnetic and electromagnetic field in therapeutic application for bone stimulation

Erik I. WALDORFF 1 , Marko S. MARKOV 2



This paper reviews the contemporary development of modalities that involve magnetic and electromagnetic fields for bone stimulation. Special attention is paid to low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Various signals in that frequency range have been designed and implemented in clinical practice by European and American orthopedic companies and physical therapists. It is shown that during the last two decades several books have been published to elucidate the establishment of basic science background of EMF therapy in treatment of osteoporosis/osteopenia and bone fractures. It is shown that any therapy must start with determining the proper dosimetry of the signal and the specificity of different tissues to absorb the applied EMF. These parameters are crucial for the selection of the appropriate device and protocol for treatment. In addition, the paper emphasizes that the most important parameter to be considered is the “dose” received by the target, not the field generated by the device. Lastly, it is underscored that it is the magnetic component of the applied signal that penetrates the target tissue and has the potential to improve healing.


KEY WORDS: Electromagnetic fields; Bone conduction; Therapeutics

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