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Original Article   

Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2022 Jul 13

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.22.05116-8

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and self-esteem in high risk pregnancy

Aurora SCABIA 1 , Maria A. DONATI 2, Caterina PRIMI 3, Clara LUNARDI 4, Giuliana LINO 1, Davide DÈTTORE 3, Silvia VANNUCCINI 5, 6, Federico MECACCI 6

1 Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy; 2 Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 3 Department of Health and Science, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4 Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health (NEUROFARBA), Section of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 5 Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 6 Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy


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BACKGROUND: To evaluate the levels of depression, state and trait anxiety, selfefficacy, and self-esteem among women with high risk pregnancy due to previous adverse pregnancy outcomes (PAPOs) or pre-pregnancy diseases (PPD), before and after delivery, compared to controls.
METHODS: An observational longitudinal study on psychological dimensions was conducted on 86 women attending a university referral centre for high risk pregnancy, by administering the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-esteem Scale. A pre-test (in the third trimester of pregnancy) and a follow-up measurement session (one month after the delivery) were applied. PAPOs group, PPD group and controls were compared.
RESULTS: The PAPOs group had higher levels of depression compared to the other groups, with above-threshold levels. However, a more relevant decrease in depression was found in the PAPOs group after delivery. Levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem were unexpectedly high during and after pregnancy in all the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: A PAPO represents a risk factor for depression development during pregnancy, whereas a PPD seems to be less relevant in influencing affective dimensions. Surprisingly, all pregnant women, independently of the obstetric risk, showed high levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem.


KEY WORDS: Anxiety; Depression; High risk pregnancy; Self-efficacy; Self-esteem

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