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Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2021 May 12

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04827-2


language: English

Effect of L-Arginine supplementation in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and previous placenta vascular disorders receiving Aspirin prophylaxis: a randomized control trial

Francesca MONARI 1 , Daniela MENICHINI 2, Lucrezia PIGNATTI 3, Laura BASILE 1, Fabio FACCHINETTI 1, Isabella NERI 1

1 Obstetrics Unit, Mother Infant Department, University Hospital Policlinico of Modena, Modena, Italy; 2 Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, International Doctorate School in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 3 Obstetric Unit, Bufalini Hospital of Cesena, Cesena, Italy


BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of supplementation with Arginine (L-Arg) 3g, (together with Magnesium (Mg) 350 mg and Salicilate (Sal) 100 mg) on maternal blood pressure (BP), uterine artery doppler PI and neonatal outcomes in women with high-risk pregnancy for chronic hypertension (CH) and other previous placenta vascular disorders (PVD) already treated with low dose of aspirin (LDA), as recommended by guidelines.
METHODS: We enrolled women affected by CH and other previous PVD referred to the High-Risk Clinic of the Mother-Infant Department of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia from September 2017 to June 2019. The study design was a controlled, randomized trial of oral supplementation of L-Arg 3g (together with Mg 350 mg and Sal extract 100 mg) + LDA 100 mg/die versus only LDA 100 mg/die. Inclusion criteria were: singleton pregnancy; diagnosis of chronic hypertension, previous preeclampsia < 34 weeks, previous intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) < 10° centile or previous stillbirth (SB) related to placenta vascular disorders; gestational age < 14 weeks. Each woman was enrolled between 12-14 weeks gestation and underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with an automatic device (SpaceLab 92710, Critikon, WA), repeated at 18-20th and 24-26th weeks. Moreover Uterine artery Doppler ultrasound evaluation including PI were performed at 18-20 weeks gestation and repeated at 24-26th weeks. Pregnancy outcomes data were collected in a password protected database.
RESULTS: Seventy-nine women agreed to participate in the study. No significant differences between the demographic characteristics in the two groups at enrollment (Group LDA + L-Arg: 30 patients versus Group LDA: 49 patient) were found. In the LDA-L-Arg group there isn’t the significant increase in both systolic (127.22 ± 12.02 and 132.75 ± 7.51 mmHg, p=0.002) and diastolic (75.85 ± 8.53 and 83.63 ± 6.05 mmHg, p=0.0000) BP values at 24-26 weeks reveled in the LDA group. The value of the Uterine Artery Doppler median PI > 95° centile at 24-26 weeks show a significant reduction in the LDA+L-Arg group respect the LDA group (7 women, 23.3% vs 21 women, 42.9%; p=0.04). A significantly lower percentage of women received new antihypertensive drugs in the LDA+ L-Arg group than the LDA group (6.7% vs 24.5%) (p= 0.02). There was neither statistically significant difference in perinatal outcomes between 2 groups, except for trend of significance.
CONCLUSIONS: Although we found only trends of improvements of perinatal outcomes in LDA+LArg group, considering the promising results on BP values, uterine artery PI and the low need to start a new antihypertensive treatment, thus the resulting impact in reducing pregnancy medicalization, number of maternal-fetal well-being monitoring visits and the need of induction of labour, we believe that further studies should be performed to enlarge our observation and clarify the role of L-Arg 3g supplementation as a protective integration in high-risk pregnancies already in prophylaxis with LDA.

KEY WORDS: L-Arginine; Low dose of aspirin; Chronic hypertension; Placenta vascular disorders; Blood pressure

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