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Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2021 May 05

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04807-3

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Neurodevelopment of infant with late fetal growth restriction

Tamara STAMPALIJA 1, 2 , Claudia CIARDO 1, Moira BARBIERI 1, Francesco M. RISSO 3, Laura TRAVAN 3

1 Unit of Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy; 2 Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 3 Neonatology Division, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy


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INTRODUCTION: Late fetal growth restriction has increasingly gain interest. Differently from early fetal growth restriction, the severity of this condition and the impact on perinatal mortality and morbidity is less severe. Nevertheless, there is some evidence to suggest that fetuses exposed to growth restriction late in pregnancy are at increased risk of neurological dysfunction and behavioural impairment.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The aim of our review is to discuss the available evidence on the neurodevelopmental outcome in fetuses exposed to growth restriction late in pregnancy. Cerebral blood flow redistribution, a Doppler hallmark of late fetal growth restriction, has been associated with this increased risk, although there are still some controversies. Currently, most of the available studies are heterogeneous and do not distinguish between early and late fetal growth restriction when evaluating the long-term outcome, thus, making the correlation between late fetal growth restriction and neurological dysfunction difficult to interpret.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence suggests that fetuses exposed to late growth restriction are at increased risk of neurological dysfunction and behavioural impairment. The presence of the cerebral blood flow redistribution seems to be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, however, from the present literature the causality cannot be ascertained.


KEY WORDS: Fetal growth restriction; Infant; Neurodevelopmental disorders

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