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REVIEW  BONE HEALTH IN WOMAN’S REPRODUCTIVE LIFE AND POSTMENOPAUSE 

Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2021 December;73(6):730-43

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.20.04674-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Postmenopausal osteoporosis: current status of bone densitometry

Valentina TESTINI 1, Maria T. PAPARELLA 1, Ilaria GANGAI 1, Giuseppe GUGLIELMI 1, 2

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Foggia University School of Medicine, Foggia, Italy; 2 Radiology Unit, Barletta University Campus UNIFG, “Dimiccoli Hospital”, Barletta, Barletta-Andria-Trani, Italy



Osteoporosis is the most common of all metabolic bone disorders characterized by loss of bone strength, due to modifications in bone turnover. It leads to bone fragility and increased fracture risk. Because of the increasing aging of the world population, the number of people affected by osteoporosis is continuously increasing. The WHO operational definition of osteoporosis, based on a measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), identifies patients at greatest risk of fracture. However, in the population overall a greater total number of fractures occurs in individuals with BMD values above threshold for osteoporosis diagnosis; for this reason, algorithms have been developed to improve the identification of individuals at high fracture risk, including clinical risk factors for fracture. The correct diagnosis of osteoporosis with an appropriate and accurate use of diagnostic imaging results in better management in terms of adequate treatment and follow-up. Moreover, screening strategies will improve identification of patients who are most likely to benefit from drug treatment to prevent fracture. All women after the age of 65 years previously untested and women after the age of 50 years with previous low trauma fractures should be screened by DXA. In fact, osteoporosis-related fractures cause a significant increase in morbidity and mortality, decreasing the quality of life, with an increasing social and economic burdens. For this reason, fracture risk assessment should be a high priority amongst health measures.


KEY WORDS: Osteoporosis, postmenopausal; Fractures, bone; X-rays

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