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REVIEW  BONE HEALTH IN WOMAN’S REPRODUCTIVE LIFE AND POSTMENOPAUSE 

Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2021 December;73(6):704-13

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.20.04682-1

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: when and why

Camilla BENINI, Daniele ESPOSITO, Giovanni ADAMI, Elisabetta VANTAGGIATO, Davide GATTI, Maurizio ROSSINI, Angelo FASSIO

Unit of Rheumatology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy



Osteoporosis is a common disease, with fragility fractures representing its dreaded complications. The role of calcium and vitamin D supplementation needs to be addressed in the context of a heavy health burden, with a massive impact on individuals, healthcare systems, and societies as a whole. Calcium and vitamin D are often discussed together as interventions for promoting bone health. Still, it is essential to remember that they are quite distinct entities that play different roles in mineral metabolism. Insufficient calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency are common and widespread. Furthermore, a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and extra-skeletal outcomes has emerged over the last decades. When dietary intake is insufficient, with little room for improvement, several supplementation strategies have proved to be effective and safe. Adequate calcium intake and vitamin D serum levels should be pursued efficiently in the general population, and deficiency should be considered unacceptable in subsets particularly at risk. The aim of this narrative review was to present an overview of calcium and vitamin D intake and their supplementation.


KEY WORDS: Osteoporosis; Calcium; Vitamin D; Denosumab

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