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Minerva Medica 2021 Sep 20

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07808-3

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Syncope-presyncope and dizziness, differential diagnosis

Rudi PECCI 1 , Alice CECCOFIGLIO 2

1 Unit of Audiology, Oncological and Robotic Head and Neck Surgery, Careggi-Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2 Department of Internal Medicine and Post-Surgery, Careggi Hospital and University of Florence, Florence, Italy


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To date, there are no doubts about the evaluation of patients with syncope, while differential diagnoses between presyncope and nonspecific symptoms, generically referred to as dizziness, are complex and not clearly standardized. This paper aims to highlight the most frequent vestibular diseases, which can mimic a pre-syncopal episode in adult and older patients. It should be noted that nonspecific symptoms may be caused by multiple conditions and they can coexist in the same person, making diagnosis even more difficult. Due to nonspecific symptoms and diagnostic complexity, evaluation of patients with presyncope or dizziness should be multidisciplinary, involving the syncope expert and the audiologist, since the first evaluation of the patient in the Emergency Department.


KEY WORDS: Dizziness; Presyncope; Differential diagnosis

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