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Minerva Medica 2020 Jul 17

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.20.06611-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Epigenetic regulation of insulin: role of glucose in pancreatic beta cells

Safa A. ELHASSAN 1, Yee H. WONG 2, Subrat K. BHATTAMISRA 3, Mayuren CANDASAMY 3

1 School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2 School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3 Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease which is associated with both insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance. Glucose appears to play a pivotal role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion, the mechanism known as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Glucose plays a major role in the expression of insulin gene via the recruitment of transcription factors to the insulin gene and the regulation of its histone modifications, resulting in insulin secretion. Conversely, chronic hyperglycaemia induces the dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance. Hence, the role of epigenetics in the physiological role of glucose in insulin secretion and chronic hyperglycemia, and subsequent T2DM have been explored. A better understanding of the epigenetics is crucial to explore new strategies to treat the disease. This review highlights the role of epigenetics during the physiological and pathological changes in pancreatic beta cells to improve the understanding of how these changes contribute to the development of T2DM.


KEY WORDS: Insulin; Epigenetics; Glucose; Diabetes mellitus

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