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Minerva Medica 2019 October;110(5):439-49

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.19.06165-2


language: English

Recent advances in risk prediction, therapeutics and pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy

Sarah M. MORAN 1, 2, 3, Daniel C. CATTRAN 1, 2

1 The Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry and Division of Nephrology, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2 Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3 Trinity Health Kidney Center, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the world’s commonest primary glomerular disease with variable clinical presentation and progression rates that are dependent on clinical-pathologic phenotype and duration of follow-up. Overall 4-40% of patients progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by 10 years. Treatment decisions remain a challenge due to these variations. The ultimate goal of management is to prevent progression to ESKD and of vital importance is the potential reversible early detection of active glomerular inflammation prior to scarring. IgAN is globally, is the most common biopsy proven glomerulonephritis and a leading cause of ESKD. The Oxford pathological classification was devised by a collaborative pathology and nephrology network to provide an evidence-based scoring system with reproducible independent pathology features of predictive value. Clinical variables that alter prognosis include male sex, increasing age, increased body weight, smoking, Pacific Asian ethnicity, hypertension, proteinuria, and complement deficiency. Excellent conservative therapy is the cornerstone of therapy with tight blood control, renin-angiotensin system inhibition, and statin therapy. The role of immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids in IgAN remains open with ongoing clinical trials of low dose oral corticosteroids and enteric coated budesonide. Complement activation contributes to the pathogenic process of IgAN with evidence from genetic, serological, histological and in-vitro studies. This knowledge has translated to clinical trials of investigational agents directly targeting the alternative pathway.

KEY WORDS: IGA glomerulonephritis; Immunosuppression; Therapeutics; Kidney

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