Home > Journals > Minerva Medica > Past Issues > Minerva Medica 2015 April;106(2) > Minerva Medica 2015 April;106(2):109-14

CURRENT ISSUE
 

JOURNAL TOOLS

eTOC
To subscribe
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian
 

ARTICLE TOOLS

Reprints
Permissions
Cite this article as

 

REVIEWS   

Minerva Medica 2015 April;106(2):109-14

Copyright © 2015 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Thyroid disorders in women

Li H., Li J.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, Shenyang, P. R. China


PDF


Thyroid disorders include autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer. AITD mainly consist of autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves disease. The common characteristic of thyroid disorders is female preponderance in their prevalence. The female-to-male rate ratio is reported at 4~6:1 for AITD and about 3~4:1 for thyroid nodule. For PTC, it is greatest during reproductive age and drops from five and more in patients aged 20-24, to 3.4 in patients aged 35-44 to one in patients over 80. The effects of female gonadal hormones and X chromosome inactivation on thyroid gland and immune system greatly contribute to the female predilection of AITD. The former mainly include prolactin and estrogen. The direct actions of estrogen on the thyroid tissue contribute to the development of thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer in women.

top of page