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Minerva Ginecologica 2011 October;63(5):459-64

Copyright © 2011 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Conditions associated with placental dysfunction

Ventolini G.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA


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Placental dysfunction is a term to describe suboptimal placental function leading to variations in the fetal supply of all its necessary required nutrients as well as the disruption in the cleansing of fetal catabolic products. The dysfunctional placenta may interrupt the manufacturing of other essential factors involved in pregnancy conservation, can compromise the fetal appropriate, atraumatic and sterile medium to grow, the immunologic shield from maternal antibodies and the normal amniotic fluid levels. Placental dysfunction can lead to a group of disorders representing a diverse and important category of pathological processes conducting to fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which these inflammatory processes cause death and disability are diverse and can be separated into four distinct classes: first, placental damage with loss of function; second, induction of premature labor; third, release of inflammatory mediators; fourth, transplacental infection. Several conditions have been associated with placental dysfunction: IUGR, hypertension, hypoxic-ischemic injury, preterm labor, and fetal death.

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