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Minerva Endocrinologica 2020 Dec 17

DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.20.03353-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Rubrometabolic syndrome

Sanjay KALRA 1 , Ankia COETZEE 2, Philip A. KALRA 3, Joel R. SALDAÑA 4, Gary KILOV 5

1 Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2 Division of Endocrinology, Stellenbosch University & Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; 3 Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 4 Resultados Medicos, Desarrollo e Investigacion, SC, Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico City, Mexico; 5 Clinical Associate Professor, University of Melbourne VIC, Launceston, Australia


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Metabolic syndrome (MS), a conglomeration of several conditions including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia is reaching epidemic proportions. Anemia is caused by iron deficiency or dysregulation of iron homeostasis, leading to tissue hypoxia. Coexistence of anemia and MS or its components has been reported in the literature. The term “rubrometabolic syndrome” acts as a unifying entity linking the importance of blood in health and anemia in MS; it justifies two principles-redness of blood and low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation in MSaffects iron metabolism leading to anemia. Tissue hypoxia that results from the anemic condition seems to be a major causative factor for the exacerbation of several microvascular and macrovascular components of T2DM, which include diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular complications. In obesity, anemia leads to malabsorption of micronutrients and can complicate the management of the condition by bariatric surgery. Anemia interferes with the diagnosis and management of T2DM, obesity, dyslipidemia, or hypertension due to its effect on pathological tests as well as medications. Since anemia in MS is multifaceted, the management of anemia is challenging as overcorrection of anemia with erythropoietin-stimulating agents can cause detrimental effects. These limitations necessitate availability of an effective and safe therapy that can maintain and elevate the hemoglobin levels along with maintaining the physiological balance of other systems. This review discusses the physiological links between anemia and MS along with diagnosis and management strategies in patients with coexistence of anemia and MS.


KEY WORDS: Metabolic syndrome; Anemia; Diabetes mellitus; Obesity; Iron deficiency; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease

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