Home > Journals > Minerva Endocrinology > Past Issues > Minerva Endocrinology 2022 March;47(1) > Minerva Endocrinology 2022 March;47(1):89-98

CURRENT ISSUE
 

JOURNAL TOOLS

Publishing options
eTOC
To subscribe
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian
 

ARTICLE TOOLS

Publication history
Reprints
Permissions
Cite this article as
Share

 

REVIEW  MALE INFERTILITY: FROM ETIOLOGY TO MANAGEMENT 

Minerva Endocrinology 2022 March;47(1):89-98

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6507.21.03507-7

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Oocyte quality in assisted reproduction techniques

Sandrine CHAMAYOU

Unit of Reproductive Medicine, HERA Center, Sant’Agata Li Battiati, Catania, Italy



The metaphase II (MII) oocyte is the mature female gamete, produced from a complex maturation process called oogenesis that starts in the first weeks of embryogenesis in the female embryo tract, continues during puberty, and is completed at fertilization with the spermatozoon. Oogenesis is closely related to folliculogenesis. In assisted reproduction techniques, oocytes are retrieved in cumulus-oocyte complexes after ovarian stimulation. Before being used for in vitro fertilization or cryopreservation, the metaphase (MII) oocytes can be classified according to different morphological traits and by the presence/absence of the meiotic spindle. Except for a few and rare morphological characteristics that make the oocyte discarded, none of the morphological characteristics is predictive of oocyte competence in giving a viable embryo. On the other side, specific key performance indicators based on MII oocytes test the efficacy of in vitro treatments. Molecular, cellular, or genetic abnormalities in the oocytes have observable consequences on the embryo development dynamics and its genetic content. Besides what can be seen in vitro, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to the patient are responsible for the oocyte quality. The clinician and the patient herself must be aware of these factors to preserve the reproductive functions as much as possible. In the present review, we have revised oogenesis and the role of mature oocytes in supporting the fertilization process and early embryo development; we have also listed the oocyte morphological traits and key performance indicators related to the oocyte quality and studied the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that irreversibly impact female fertility.


KEY WORDS: Embryonic development; Genetics; Fertilization in vitro; Oocytes

top of page