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Minerva Endocrinologica 2020 September;45(3):189-203

DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.20.03195-8

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Male hypogonadism: therapeutic choices and pharmacological management

Sandro LA VIGNERA 1 , Giulia IZZO 2, Gian Pietro EMERENZIANI 2, Rossella CANNARELLA 1, Rosita A. CONDORELLI 1, Aldo E. CALOGERO 1, Antonio AVERSA 2

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 2 Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro, Italy



Male hypogonadism, defined as an inadequate testosterone production, recognizes a testicular (primary hypogonadism) or a hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction (central hypogonadism), although combined forms can also occur. Moreover, it has been known that intensive exercise training might be a cause of functional hypogonadism. Many therapeutic choices are currently available, depending on the timing of hypogonadism onset and fertility issue. The aim of this review was to comprehensively supply therapeutic options and schemes currently available for male hypogonadism, including pharmacological management of primary and central forms. Evidence on testosterone formulations, human chorionic gonadotropin, selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors will be provided.


KEY WORDS: Hypogonadism; Testosterone; Hormone replacement therapy; Chorionic gonadotropin; Selective estrogen receptor modulators

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