Home > Journals > Minerva Endocrinology > Past Issues > Minerva Endocrinologica 2017 December;42(4) > Minerva Endocrinologica 2017 December;42(4):318-24



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Minerva Endocrinologica 2017 December;42(4):318-24

DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.16.02535-9


language: English

Insulin treatment may not be associated with worse prognosis in acute heart failure diabetic patients

Filipe M. CUNHA 1 , Pedro MARQUES 2, Joana PEREIRA 2, Maria J. PINTO 2, Pedro RODRIGUES 2, Helena MOREIRA 2, Patrícia LOURENÇO 2, Paulo BETTENCOURT 2, 3

1 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hospital of São João, Porto, Portugal; 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of São João, Porto, Portugal; 3 Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal


BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients with heart failure (HF) treated with insulin appear to have a worse prognosis compared to oral anti-diabetic (OAD) agents. Whether insulin is a risk factor or a marker of disease severity is unknown. We studied the prognostic impact of insulin treatment in an acute HF diabetic population.
METHODS: From a prospectively recruited population of hospital-admitted acute HF patients we retrospectively selected a convenience sample. Pair-matched analysis: each insulin-treated patient was matched with a diabetic patient with similar glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c±0.2%) under OAD. End-point: all-cause death. Follow-up: 5 years. Insulin-treated and OAD-treated patients were compared. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis was used to analyze the prognostic impact of insulin.
RESULTS: We studied 92 patients: 46 insulin-treated and 46 HbA1c-matched under OAD. Mean age: 74±9 years, 46.7% male and 63.5% had HF with reduced ejection fraction. HbA1c was 7.8±1.5% in both groups. In the subgroup under OAD: 87.0% metformin, 41.3% sulphonylurea, 28.3% dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and 4.3% other agents. Insulin-treated patients had lower hemoglobin, higher creatinine and discharged B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (816.6 [289.2-1805.8] vs. 613.3 [205.6-1110.8]; P=0.02). Seventy three patients died. There were no differences in mortality up to 5 years. After multivariate adjustment accounting for hemoglobin, creatinine and discharge BNP, HR for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year all-cause death in insulin-treated patients were 1.48 (0.62-3.54); P=0.38, 1.11 (0.55-2.25); P=0.77, 1.08 (0.56-2.08); P=0.28 and 1.24 (0.70-2.19); P=0.46, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Insulin-treated diabetic patients with HF and HbA1c-matched patients treated with OAD have similarly ominous prognosis. Our results favor insulin as a marker of poor health condition.

KEY WORDS: Heart failure - Insulin - Diabetes mellitus - Prognosis

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