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MINERVA ENDOCRINOLOGICA

A Journal on Endocrine System Diseases


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Minerva Endocrinologica 2017 Sep 25

DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.17.02744-4

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Endocrine and neuroendocrine cytopathology

Massimo BONGIOVANNI 1 , Stefano LA ROSA 1, Gerasimos P. SYKIOTIS 2

1 Service of Clinical Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2 Service of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland


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Cytology is an easily accessible, cost-effective and safe procedure for the initial evaluation of most endocrine/neuroendocrine lesions. Both fine-needle aspiration cytology and exfoliative cytology have shown good sensitivity and specificity in detecting endocrine/neuroendocrine benign proliferations and malignancies. Thanks to its utility for early diagnosis, cytology has contributed to the decline in mortality of endocrine/neuroendocrine neoplasms. The endocrine system comprises different endocrine organs, such as the thyroid, adrenal glands, paraganglia, parathyroid, pancreas, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries and testes, which can give rise to non-neoplastic, benign and malignant proliferations. In addition, several neuroendocrine cells do not form specific endocrine organs, but are widely present along other systems, notably in the lungs and in the gastrointestinal tract. The general diagnostic approach to proliferations originating from neuroendocrine cells is similar to that of endocrine organs. In this review we concentrate on the cytological features of neuroendocrine proliferations, with particular emphasis on their most common sites of origin, i.e. the thyroid, pancreas, lungs and skin. We also discuss ancillary approaches applied to cytological material to improve the diagnosis.


KEY WORDS: Endocrine - Neuroendocrine - Cytology - Fine-needle aspiration

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Publication History

Article first published online: September 25, 2017
Manuscript accepted: September 20, 2017
Manuscript received: September 14, 2017

Cite this article as

Bongiovanni M, La Rosa S, Sykiotis GP. Endocrine and neuroendocrine cytopathology. Minerva Endocrinol 2017 Sep 25. DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.17.02744-4

Corresponding author e-mail

massimo.bongiovanni@chuv.ch