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Minerva Endocrinologica 2019 December;44(4):363-77

DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.19.03059-1

Copyright © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Hyperchloremic normal gap metabolic acidosis

Biff F. PALMER 1 , Deborah J. CLEGG 2, 3

1 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2 Department of Health Studies, College of Arts and Sciences, American University, Washington, DC, USA; 3 Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA



Metabolic acidosis is defined as a pathologic process that, when unopposed, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the body and reduces the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. Metabolic acidosis can be of a kidney origin or an extrarenal cause. Assessment of urinary ammonium excretion by calculating the urine anion gap or osmolal gap is a useful method to distinguish between these two causes. Extrarenal processes include increased endogenous acid production and accelerated loss of bicarbonate from the body. Metabolic acidosis of renal origin is due to a primary defect in renal acidification with no increase in extrarenal hydrogen ion production. This situation can occur because either the renal input of new bicarbonate is insufficient to regenerate the bicarbonate lost in buffering endogenous acid as with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) or the RTA of renal insufficiency, or the filtered bicarbonate is lost by kidney wasting as in proximal RTA. In either condition, because of loss of either NaHCO3 (proximal RTA) or NaA (distal RTA), effective extracellular volume is reduced and as a result the avidity for chloride reabsorption derived from the diet is increased and results in a hyperchloremic normal gap metabolic acidosis. The RTA of renal insufficiency is also characterized by a normal gap acidosis, however, with severe reductions in the glomerular filtration rate an anion gap metabolic acidosis eventually develops.


KEY WORDS: Renal tubular acidosis; Distal kidney tubules; Proximal kidney tubules; Kidney diseases

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