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REVIEW  CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASES 

Minerva Endocrinologica 2018 September;43(3):333-40

DOI: 10.23736/S0391-1977.17.02728-6

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Ultrasound and ultrasound-related techniques in endocrine diseases

Pierpaolo TRIMBOLI 1 , Christoph F. DIETRICH 2, Emanuele DAVID 3, Giampiero MASTROENI 3, Orazio VENTURA SPAGNOLO 3, Paul S. SIDHU 4, Claudio LETIZIA 5, Daniela MESSINEO 6, Ferdinando D'AMBROSIO 6, Maija RADZINA 7, Vito CANTISANI 8

1Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Center, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland; 2 Department of Medicine, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Bad Mergentheim, Germany; 3 Unit of Radiology, Papardo Hospital, Messina, Italy; 4 Department of Radiology, King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK; 5 Department of Internal Medicine, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 6 Department of Radiological Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 7 Diagnostic Radiology Institute, Paula Stradina Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia; 8 Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy


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Ultrasound examination has become essential to evaluate morphology and size of several endocrine glands and detect the presence of lesions within these organs. Nevertheless, with the recent advances of ultrasound technology, we have opportunity to correlate the echostructure of thyroid, ovary, testis, parathyroids, etc. to their function. Thus, the ultrasound systems are in-office essential instruments for many clinical specialists. Herein we presented the most updated information about the use of ultrasound in specific endocrine-related issues, such as thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and testicle.


KEY WORDS: Ultrasonography - Thyroid gland - Parathyroid glands - Adrenal glands - Testis

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