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Minerva Chirurgica 2003 February;58(1):17-22


language: Italian

Predisposing factors for development of cardial adenocarcinoma

Tosato F., Carnevale L., Corsini F., Marano S., Palermo S., Piraino A., Leonardo G., Monsellato I., Paolini A.


After a careful revision of the various papers and on the basis of their personal experience, the persons responsible for this project analyse the factors that, today, influence the development of an adenocarcinoma in the region of the gastro-esophageal junction. They also study therapeutic strategies on the basis of new findings in anatomic-physiological matters of this region. From this analysis, specialists notice an increase in adenocarcinomas which affect the gastric region of the cardia, in comparison with carcinomas which affects the gastric region in toto. By considering Barrett, Hayward, Riedel and Ruol's studies, they maintain that the fundamental factor which causes the development of cardial adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux. This reflux acts as a chronic irritative stimulus on the esophageal wall and therefore it provokes an increase in mucous secretion and the formation of metaplasia. This metaplasia is initially muco-secreting, acid-secreting and in the end it becomes intestinal. This also leads to the appearance of absorbent calciform cells; the absorption of toxic or mutagenic substance for the cell itself, will be the next step for the development of an adenocarcinoma. Nowadays the therapy of intestinal metaplasia provides for different therapeutic levels: from the endoscopic monitoring (which is used for the most serious cases of dysplasia), to the PPI medical treatment (today in disuse), to the surgical laparoscopic treatment with non-refluxing plastic (Nissen, Toupet). This last treatment is today associated with endoscopic esophageal mucosectomy in order to achieve a better effectiveness. This happens through the use of various methodologies, for example the multipolar electrocoagulation.

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