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Review Article   

Minerva Cardiology and Angiology 2022 Mar 25

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5683.22.06022-7


language: English

Current knowledge on the association between cardiovascular and periodontal disease: an umbrella review

Mariangela PERUZZI 1, 2, Karin COVI 3, Matteo SACCUCCI 3, Annachiara PINGITORE 4, Wael SAADE 1, Luigi SCIARRA 5, Maria P. CRISTALLI 6, Fabio MIRALDI 1, Giacomo FRATI 6, 7, Elena CAVARRETTA 2, 6

1 Department of Clinical, Internal, Anesthesiology and Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2 Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Napoli, Italy; 3 Department of Oral and Maxillo Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 4 Department of General and Specilized Surgery Paride Stefanini, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 5 Department of Clinical Medicine, Public Health, Life and Environment Sciences, L’Aquila University, L'Auila, Italy; 6 Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy; 8 IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Isernia, Italy


INTRODUCTION: Periodontal disease (PD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the most common pathologies in the world and their relationship has long been studied. Both conditions lead to a chronic inflammatory process with degenerative characteristics and their bi-univocal correlation is now well established. The aim of this umbrella review on cardiovascular and periodontal disease was to evaluate the real degree of association between these two pathological conditions.
EVIDENCE ACQUITION: We conducted a comprehensive literature search on PubMed/Medline and in the Cochrane Library for systematic reviews focused on clinical evidence regarding the relationship between PD and CVD. The internal validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was formally analyzed using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ) tool. The umbrella review was planned in accordance with current international recommendations and was described as specified by the PRISMA guidelines.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Thirty-one systematic reviews, including 8 meta-analyses for a total of 507 clinical studies and over 3,549,966 patients were included. PD resulted to be associated with a higher risk of developing CVD (acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction) and cerebrovascular diseases (ischemic stroke); however, if the treatment of periodontitis reduces the risk of CVD events related is yet to be investigated.
CONCLUSIONS: To date, the relationship between CVD and PD provides heterogeneous data. There is an association between PD and CVD but a causal relationship cannot be established. Further research with properly designed long-term follow-up studies are needed in order to examine various physiopathological aspects of their association.

KEY WORDS: Periodontal disease; Cardiovascular disease; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation; Umbrella review

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