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Minerva Cardiology and Angiology 2021 Aug 02

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5683.21.05801-4

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Contemporary contribution of cardiac surgery for the treatment of cardiomyopathies and pericardial diseases

Andrea LECHIANCOLE , Nunzio D. DE MANNA, Igor VENDRAMIN, Sandro SPONGA, Ugolino LIVI

Cardiothoracic Department, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, Italy


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Cardiomyopathy refers to a spectrum of heterogeneous myocardial disorders characterized by morphological and structural alterations leading eventually to heart failure, by affecting cardiac filling and/or the cardiac systolic function. Heart transplantation is currently the gold standard surgical treatment for patients with heart failure, with a median survival in adults of 12 years according to international registries. However, the limited available donor pool does not allow its extensive employment. For this reason, mechanical circulatory supports are increasingly used, and in the short term are becoming as possible alternatives to heart transplantation, owing to improved technologies and increased biocompatibility. However, long-term outcomes of mechanical assist devices are still burdened with a high rate of adverse events. Conventional surgical treatments could be still considered as alternatives to heart replacement treatment when tailored both on patient clinical conditions and etiology of cardiac diseases. In particular, among patients affected by ischemic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery bypass grafting has proven to improve survival when associated to optimal medical treatment, and surgical ventricular restoration might be considered as a valid treatment in particular cases. Correction of functional mitral valve regurgitation by mitral annuloplasty, which aims to restore left ventricular geometry, has not demonstrated unambiguous results, and outcomes of this procedure are still controversial. Pericardial pathology becomes of surgical interest when it is responsible for a reduced filling capacity of the heart chambers, which can develop acutely (cardiac tamponade) or chronically (as in the case of constrictive pericarditis). This review focuses on the different surgical approaches that could be adopted to treat patients with heart failure and pericardial diseases.


KEY WORDS: Cardiomyopathy; Heart failure; Heart transplantation; Mechanical circulatory support; Pericardial disease

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