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Minerva Cardioangiologica 2007 February;55(1):19-56


language: English

Carotid angioplasty and stenting under protection. State of the art

Henry M. 1, 2, Polydorou A. 3, Klonaris C. 4, Henry I. 5, Polydorou A. D. 6, Hugel M. 1, 2

1 Cabinet de Cardiologie, Nancy, France 2 Global Research Institute Apollo Clinic, Hyderabad, India 3 Panteleimon General Hospital, Athens, Greece 4 First Surgical Department Vascular Division Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece 5 Polyclinique Bois-BernardBois-Bernard, France 6 Onassis Cardiac Center, Athens, Greece


A carotid stenosis is responsible for about 30% of strokes occurring. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is considered to be the gold standard treatment of a carotid stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is emerging as a new alternative treatment for a carotid artery stenosis, but the risk of neurological complications and brain embolism remain the major drawback to this procedure. So as to reduce the risk, we need: good indications, good patient and lesion selection; correct techniques; brain protection devices (cerebral protection devices should be routinely used and are mandatory for any procedure. Three types of protection devices are available: filters are the most commonly used. Nevertheless, all protection devices have limitations and cannot prevent from embolic events. However neurological complications can be reduced by 60%. New protection devices will be discussed); good choice of the stent and correct implantation (all stents are not equivalent and have different geometrical effects); pharmacological adjuncts; good team. Indications are well accepted for high-risk patients and recent studies have shown that CAS has superior short-term outcomes than CEA in this group of patients. Indications for low-risk and asymptomatic patients are controversial. New selection criteria have to be discussed. But there are enough reported data to conclude that CAS is also not inferior to CEA in low-risk and asymptomatic patients. In our series of 844 procedures, without protection (n = 187) 30-day death and stroke rate was 3.7% and with protection (n = 657) 1% (1.3% for symptomatic patients, 0.9% for asymptomatic patients, 1.4% in high-risk patients, 0.4% in low-risk patients). CAS under protection is the standard of care and is maybe becoming the gold standard treatment of a carotid stenosis at least in some subgroups of patients.

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