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Minerva Biotecnologica 2020 September;32(3):128-38

DOI: 10.23736/S1120-4826.20.02606-3

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Current status of crops genetic transformation

Sehrish MANAN

College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China



Different strategies are used for plant transformation, including electroporation, particle bombardment, polyethylene-mediated, Agrobacterium-mediated, nuclease-induced, RNA interference, and recombinase technology. Unfortunately, even after decades of developments in these transformation techniques, the regeneration potential remains troublesome in most of the crops due to their intricate genomic pattern. Further, the risk factors associated with human health and environment due to the presence of antibiotic resistance genes and foreign DNA in genetically modified (GM) crops restricts their acceptance and commercialization. These concerns seek the researcher’s attention to develop new strategies and advanced tools for crop transformation. For example, the use of cisgenesis and intragenesis where the genetic material is derived from the species itself or from sexually compatible species and the engineering of existing Agrobacterium and other microbes like Rhizobium etli and Ensifer adhearens which facilitate the transfer of DNA/protein into the host plant cells, would pave the way for commercialization of GM crops in the areas where these were poorly accepted in the past. Besides, novel genome editing tools are developed, which produce crops with improved resistance to different biotic and abiotic stresses, which ultimately results in high yield. These developments have facilitated deep insights into plant biology and renovated commercial agriculture. Nonetheless, further simplification and optimization of these crop transformation strategies are essential to minimize the culture time and barriers. This review discusses the recent advancements in crop transformation and highlights several issues to be addressed for further improvement of the existing crop genome editing strategies.


KEY WORDS: Transgenes; Transformation, genetic; Gene editing; Crop production; Biofortification

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