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Minerva Anestesiologica 2021 May;87(5):541-8

DOI: 10.23736/S0375-9393.21.14294-4

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Risk factors for postoperative eye pain in patients with non-painful eye disease undergoing pars plana vitrectomy: the VItrectomy Pain (VIP) study

Elisabetta BANDERA 1, Simone PIVA 1, 2 , Eros GAMBARETTI 1, Cosetta MINELLI 3, Francesco RIZZO 1, Andrea RIZZOLO 1, Francesco MORESCALCHI 4, Luigi AMBROSOLI 4, Francesco SEMERARO 4, Nicola LATRONICO 1, 2

1 Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Emergency, Spedali Civili University Hospital, Brescia, Italy; 2 Department of Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 3 Population Health and Occupational Disease, Imperial College London, London, UK; 4 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Specialties and Public Health, Ophthalmology Clinic, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy



BACKGROUND: Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), a surgical procedure used to treat different ophthalmic pathologies, could be associated with moderate to severe eye pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative eye pain and its risk factors following PPV in a selected population of patients with non-painful eye disease, receiving regional anesthesia and moderate sedation with benzodiazepines, without use of narcotics.
METHODS: Single-center, prospective observational cohort study. We recorded the presence of pain at operating room discharge, at 6 and 24 hours, using the numeric rating scale (NRS). We recorded also age, sex, ethnic origin, American Society of Anaesthesia physical status (ASA PS) classification, Charlson Comorbidity Index, the etiology of the vitreoretinal pathology, length of surgery, and type of surgical procedure performed.
RESULTS: Eye pain (NRS>3) was present in three patients (0.7%) at operating room discharge, 59 (13.2%) at six and 65 (14.6%) at 24 hours after surgery. LASSO logistic regression analysis identified age, ASA PS, race, along with tamponade as independent risk factors for eye pain at six hours. Scleral buckling was selected for eye pain at 24 hrs.
CONCLUSIONS: A protocol for pain control after PPV should be considered, especially in younger, non-Caucasian people, and patients with high ASA PS grade. Moreover, attention must be paid when additional surgical procedures are requested, restricting them to selected patients, and using the appropriate agent for intraocular tamponade.


KEY WORDS: Eye pain; Pain, postoperative; Vitrectomy

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