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Minerva Anestesiologica 2007 May;73(5):267-73

Copyright © 2007 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Central venous catheter replacement in the ICU: new site versus guidewire exchange

Castelli G. P., Pognani C., Stuani A., Cita M., Paladini R.

Department of Intensive Care Anaesthesiology and Pain Relief, “C. Poma” Hospital, Mantua, Italy


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Aim. Catheter infection (central venous catheter, CVC-I) and catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) are of particular interest with ICU patients; more than 40-60% of them require a CVC. This prospective observational study was performed to determine if a second episode of catheterization and guidewire exchange was related to increased CRB and CVC-I rates in the ICU.
Methods. Over a period of 3 years, patients requiring a CVC, with catheter care, tip and peripheral blood cultures, were observed.
Results. A total of 898 non-tunneled CVCs were examined. The infection rates for 707 first-positioned CVCs were 4.3/1 000 catheter-day (c.d.) for CVC-I and 1.62 for CRB. Replacement was carried out for 191 CVCs: 7 of 103 CVCs inserted in a new site (4.81/1 000 c.d.) and 2 of 88 guidewire exchanged CVCs (1.75/1 000 c.d.) were infected; 2 replaced CVCs were related to CRB (1.38/1 000 c.d.). A cannulation time of over 7 days was related to a higher infection risk with its progressive reduction after the third week: the absolute risk increase was from 5.3 to 1.01 and the relative risk increased from 2.39 to 0.45 for CVC-I.
Conclusion. Prolonged indwelling time is a significant risk factor for catheter-related infections; the second episode of cannulation and guidewire exchange did not present significant risk factors for catheter-related infections. A strict stable protocol for catheter insertion, care and proper treatment are necessary to reduce both the catheter-related infection rate and cost.

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