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Minerva Ophthalmology 2021 June-December;63(2-4):37-41

DOI: 10.23736/S2785-1265.22.01848-1


language: Italian

Role of laser surgery in retinal degenerations


University of Turin, Turin, Italy

The laser in ophthalmology is essentially used in pathologies of the anterior segment and vitreous, and in diseases of the choroid and retina. In the case of pathologies of the choroid and retina it is of fundamental importance to select an appropriate wavelength of the laser beam as it must be transmitted through the dioptric means of the eye, without being absorbed by them, and must be able to reach and be absorbed by target organs. The portion of light in the visible part of the spectrum and that part located in close proximity to the infrared are easily transmitted through the dioptric means in front of the retina. The radiation of the infrared zone, as it is absorbed almost completely before reaching the retina, is normally used for diseases of the anterior segment and vitreous. In the chorio-retinal area, the laser beam is absorbed by the melanin granules contained in the pigment epithelium and in the choroid and by the hemoglobin of the erythrocytes. The main types of lasers currently in use in the ophthalmological field are the argon laser, the YAG laser, the excimer laser, the femtosecond laser. Argon laser photocoagulation is commonly used in the delimitation of peripheral retinal degenerations or in the presence of retinal holes or ruptures, in order to prevent retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are degenerative processes involving the peripheral retinal portion and which can lead to the formation of retinal tears with possible subsequent retinal detachments. This type of degeneration does not present a hereditary or familial character. As an effective therapy to limit the progression of peripheral retinal degenerations over time is not possible, prophylactic and therefore preventive therapy must be recommended to prevent retinal detachment. The use of laser therapy in retinal degenerations allows to produce an adhesive scar around the dangerous degenerations thus reducing the risk of a retinal detachment.

KEY WORDS: Retinal degeneration; Laser therapy; Retinal detachment

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