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Minerva Ophthalmology 2021 June-December;63(2-4):24-30

DOI: 10.23736/S2785-1265.22.01847-X

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: Italian

Diseases of the tear film

Elena OLIARO

University of Turin, Turin, Italy



Diseases of the tear film include not only the reduced production of tears (quantitative disturbance), but also the altered composition of the tear film with deficiency of some of its main constituents (qualitative disturbance). From an epidemiological point of view this type of disorder is certainly important. Forms of dry eyes are more frequent around the fifth decade of life, especially in women. Physiological changes in tear secretion are established in adults and the elderly; in fact, it has been shown that at 60, tear secretion is reduced by 1/4 compared to the young individual. In women, important hormonal changes related to menopause overlap: estrogen and progesterone affect lacrimation. Recent studies have shown hyperosmotic tear fluid in subjects who complain of tear dryness. In the normal subject there is an osmolarity of about 290-310 mOsm/L; in these patients, on the other hand, the osmolar concentration has significantly higher values, between 310 and 360 mOsm/L. Considering that tear osmolarity is the result of the balance between the production of liquid by the tear glands and the rate of evaporation, when for any reason this balance shifts in favor of evaporation, there is a hyperosmotic variation of the taper of tears. Dry eye syndrome that arises after cataract surgery can be a transient disorder, but for a few months the patient experiences several problems related to the changes that surgery causes on the ocular surface. Usually tear substitutes are prescribed that patients must use for a few months after surgery to restore proper ocular hydration. A new tear substitute has recently been proposed containing vitamin D, vitamin A, omega 3 fatty acids and liposomes to be used even before surgery.


KEY WORDS: Tears; Dry eye syndromes; Vitamin D

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