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Medicina dello Sport 2020 June;73(2):231-45

DOI: 10.23736/S0025-7826.20.03529-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English, Italian

Morphological profile of Spanish female acrobatic gymnasts

Yaiza TABOADA-IGLESIAS 1, 2, Rocío ABALO-NÚÑEZ 1, 2 , Mercedes VERNETTA-SANTANA 3, Águeda GUTIÉRREZ-SÁNCHEZ 2, 4

1 Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Physiotherapy, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain; 2 Education, Physical Activity and Health Research Group (Gies10-DE3), Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS), University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain; 3 Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 4 Department of Special Didactics, Faculty of Science Education and Sport, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain


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BACKGROUND: The morphological studies in the different sports disciplines are established as an important line of research in sports science. Numerous studies have been carried out in order to find out which morphological variables determine sports performance, as well as to carry out a good talent identification. The aim of the study is to determine the specific and differentiating morphological profile between competition roles in female acrobatic gymnasts.
METHODS: The study involved 129 national-level female gymnasts (54 tops and 75 bases) from all over Spain. Different anthropometric measurements were recorded, and calculations were carried out to determine the body composition, somatotype, and body proportionality of these gymnasts. The measurements followed the standards established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).
RESULTS: The tops obtained lower values than the bases in all anthropometric measurements (P<0.05). Proportionally, the measurements of both groups were characterized by low values, with the exception of certain diameters, among which the bistyloid diameter of the wrist stood out. The body fat percentage was higher in bases, while the bone mass percentage was higher in tops. The mesomorphy stood out as the most important somatotype component in both roles, although it was higher in tops. The regression analysis determined BMI and mesomorphy as the predictors of the role.
CONCLUSIONS: There are differences between competition roles, a low BMI and a high mesomorphy being fundamental and specific characteristics for the orientation toward the role of top.


KEY WORDS: Anthropometry; Body composition; Sports; Women

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