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Medicina dello Sport 2002 September;55(3):195-206


language: Italian

Hygiene in soccer locker rooms

Liguori G. 1, Boccia G. 1, Limongelli F. 2

1 Dipartimento di Medicina Pubblica, Clinica e Preventiva, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli; 2 Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina dello Sport, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli


Structural char­ac­ter­is­tics and ­human beha­vi­our are to be con­sid­ered as the ­main san­i­tary ­aspects of ­sport lock­er ­rooms.
­CONI reg­u­la­tions on ­sport ­grounds, ­approved on July 15, 1999, have ­already ­defined the struc­tu­ral req­ui­si­tions, estab­lish­ing qual­ita­tive and quan­ti­ta­tive lev­els for the con­struc­tion of ­plants and the ren­o­va­tion of the ­already exist­ing instal­la­tions.
As to ­human beha­vi­our, the ­main con­cern is ­based on the pre­ven­tion of acci­dents ­that may ­occur in lock­er ­rooms and of infec­tious dis­eas­es ­whose ­onset is strict­ly relat­ed to the ­kind of atten­dance.
The ­most fre­quent­ly report­ed acci­dents are ­sprains, trau­mas, con­tu­sions, ­wounds ­caused by acci­den­tal ­falls, or elec­tro­cu­tions pro­voked by the incau­tious use of ­electric devic­es.
Skin and ­mucous mem­branes infec­tious dis­eas­es are ­indeed ­very fre­quent and nor­mal­ly ­caused by ­yeasts (Tinea ped­is bet­ter ­known as ­athlete’s ­foot, can­di­di­a­sis and pyti­ri­a­sis), or by virus­es (Herpes ­virus infec­tion, con­tag­ious mol­lusc and ver­ru­ca vul­gar­is) and by bac­te­ria (impe­ti­go, fol­lic­u­litis and furun­cu­lo­sis).
Less recur­ring, but not ­less impor­tant, are the pathol­o­gies ­that may be trans­mit­ted by air, by ­oral-­feces route and ­those ­caused by ­blood trans­mit­ted virus­es.
In ­the ­former, a par­tic­u­lar­ly ­long-last­ing phys­i­cal exer­cise pro­vokes a sec­on­dary-lev­el dam­age to the ­mucous mem­brane of the res­pir­a­to­ry ­tract and hyper­ven­ti­la­tion, as ­well as the weak­en­ing of ­local defenc­es and the mod­ifi­ca­tion of the IgM and IgA sali­va lev­els (in par­tic­u­lar of IgA1).
In the lat­ter, for exam­ple HAV ­virus, ente­ro and rot­a­vi­rus, Salmonella spe­cies, a ­wrong hygien­ic san­i­tary beha­vi­our, or an inad­e­quate per­son­al ­hygiene can be con­sid­ered pre­dis­pos­ing fac­tor ­above all ­when envi­ron­men­tal dis­in­fect­ing ­actions are not system­at­i­cal­ly and prop­er­ly car­ried out ­with ade­quate prod­ucts.
Blood trans­mit­ted infec­tions rare­ly ­occur dur­ing a ­game or lat­er in lock­er ­rooms, ­unless ­there is a pro­mis­cu­ous use of toi­let­ry or a ­direct con­tact ­with the ­blood of an infect­ed per­son. A high­er ­risk is ­known for HBV, ­while infec­tion ­caused by HCV and HIV can be sim­ply con­sid­ered unusu­al.
A com­plete and system­at­ic infor­ma­tion cam­paign on exist­ing ­laws and a cor­rect beha­vi­our in the prem­is­es ­turned ­into lock­er ­rooms are undoubt­ed­ly the ­most effi­cient pre­ven­tion meas­ures ­when man­ag­ing dan­gers and ­risks for ­athletes’ ­health.

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