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Original Article   

International Angiology 2022 Apr 04

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.22.04831-3

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

The CHIVA strategy applied to large-diameter saphenous veins

Xavier TENEZACA-SARI 1, 2 , Marvin GARCÍA-REYES 1, José María ESCRIBANO-FERRER 1, Carlos MARRERO 1, Sergi BELLMUNT-MONTOYA 1, 2

1 Angiology, Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain; 2 Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain


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BACKGROUND: CHIVA is a conservative outpatient treatment strategy for chronic venous disease (CVD) that preserves the superficial venous system. A modified twostage strategy is used in patients with a great saphenous vein (GSV) diameter ≥ 9 mm with the goal to decrease the risk of symptomatic superficial vein thrombosis (SVT), as the risk of complications is higher when first and second stage simultaneously is performed.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 111 patients with CVD and a GVS diameter ≥ 9 mm treated with two possible stages of the CHIVA strategy, between January 2010 and December 2019. The goal of the first stage is to interrupt the main reflux escape point (incompetent saphenofemoral junction), thereby lowering the venous pressure and achieving a sufficient reduction in GSV diameter to enable, if necessary, a second stage that consist of disconnection of secondary reflux exit point (incompetent saphenous tributaries), with a lower risk of symptomatic SVT when patients do not show significant clinical improvement. Reductions in GSV diameter, postoperative complications and clinical improvement were analyzed.
RESULTS: There were 60 men (54.1%) and 51 women (45.9%) with a mean age of 57±11.9 years. All patients undergone first surgical stage, and this interruption of the saphenofemoral junction was the single procedure in 77.5% of cases (86 patients). Mean follow-up time was 19.8 months. The second stage was performed in 25 patients (22.5%). Mean preoperative GSV diameter was 10.2±1.1 mm and this decreased to 7.1±1.5 mm after the first surgery (mean reduction, 3±1.5 mm, p<0.001). Six patients (5.4%) experienced recurrence due to recanalization of the reflux point and 16 patients (14.4%) developed SVT, which was symptomatic in 12 cases (10.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: Interruption of the main reflux escape point as a single procedure in patients with a GSV diameter ≥ 9 mm led to a significant reduction in diameter and sufficient clinical improvement in almost 80% of cases.


KEY WORDS: CHIVA strategy; Chronic venous disease; Great saphenous vein

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