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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  VENOUS DISEASE Free accessfree

International Angiology 2021 October;40(5):359-67

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.21.04650-2

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Ultrasonographic hemodynamical and epidemiological factors in advancement of clinical manifestations in primary varicose veins

Apostolos G. PITOULIAS 1 , Dimitrios CHATZELAS 1, Thomas E. KALOGIROU 1, Loukia A. POLITI 1, Matthaios G. PITOULIAS 1, Nikolaos ROUSSAS 2, Ioannis KAKISIS 3, Athanasios D. GIANNOUKAS 2, Georgios A. PITOULIAS 1

1 School of Medicine, Division of Vascular Surgery, Second Department of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, “G. Gennimatas” Teaching Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2 School of Health Sciences, Department of Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Larissa, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; 3 School of Health Sciences, Department of Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece



BACKGROUND: Primary varicose veins (PVV) represent the most prominent clinical manifestation of chronic venous disease (CVD) and has a complex pathophysiological background. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of sonographic hemodynamical and contemporary epidemiological factors on the clinical severity of PVV.
METHODS: We analyzed the sonographic hemodynamical and clinical parameters from 159 consecutive CVD patients and 233 lower limbs with PVV of clinical stages C2, C3 and C4. Univariate and logistic regression analysis was performed between patients of C2 (N.=70 - 30.0%) and C3 - 4 stages and between subgroups C3 (N.=101 - 43.3%) and C4 (N.=62 - 26.6%).
RESULTS: Reflux of common femoral vein and saphenofemoral junction was detected in 43.3% and 65.7%. High venous reflux rates were found at the great saphenous above and below knee (90.1% - 53.2%) and in Cockett perforators (80.5%). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated with the symptomatic C3; 4 stages were the duration of disease >10 years (P=0.015, insufficiency in two or more perforators (P<0.001) and history of 2 pregnancies (P=0.001). Analysis C3 vs. C4 showed that insufficiency in two or more perforators increased the likelihood of advanced C4 clinical stage by 2.2 times, (P=0.037). An additional significant factor was the presence of at least one incompetent Cockett perforator.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical severity of PVV is correlated with a plethora of complex anatomical, hemodynamical and epidemiological factors. Insufficiency in two or more perforators seems to play the most important role and this highlights the value of preoperative venous ultrasound mapping.


KEY WORDS: Bile reflux; Varicose veins; Saphenous vein; Femoral vein; Epidemiology

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