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International Angiology 2021 August;40(4):270-6

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.21.04663-0


language: English

The impact of venous stenting across the inguinal ligament on primary patency: a systematic review

Helena MACHADO 1, Joel SOUSA 1, 2 , Armando MANSILHA 1, 2

1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 2 Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, Hospital de S. João, Porto, Portugal

INTRODUCTION: Iliac venous stenting is an established treatment option for both post-thrombotic and non-thrombotic iliac venous obstructions. Nonetheless, there is still no consensus on the best medical practice regarding some of these interventions. One area of debate is the safety of extending venous stents across the inguinal ligament (IL), with contradictory results from various authors and overall poor-quality research. This review aims to summarise current knowledge on the effect of venous stent placement across the IL on primary patency.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases, which returned 531 studies. Eleven studies were included. Data were extracted using piloted forms, and, if necessary, authors were contacted to obtain further information.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Two studies were prospective cohorts, whereas the remaining 9 were retrospective cohorts. Overall study quality was weak. Four studies showed a statistically significant association between stent placement across the IL and decreased primary patency. A multivariate analysis was performed in two of those studies, yet only one maintained statistical significance after multivariate analysis. Two studies reported 4 cases of stent fracture in total, and one study reported 5 cases of stent compression. All cases of stent fracture or compression occurred at the inguinal ligament.
CONCLUSIONS: Although current expert opinion favors stent placement across the IL, there is still insufficient evidence to recommend for or against venous stenting across the IL. Further research is required on comparing alternatives for the treatment of iliac venous lesions that extend into the common femoral vein. Despite the establishment of venous stenting as a viable treatment option for both post-thrombotic and non-thrombotic iliac venous obstructions, there is an ongoing debate on the safety of extending such stents across the inguinal ligament. There are several publications on this subject, with conflicting results and overall poor-quality research. This is the first systematic review of published clinical evidence on the impact of venous stent placement across the IL on primary patency.

KEY WORDS: Iliac vein; Femoral vein; Stents; Postthrombotic syndrome; May-thurner syndrome

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