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International Angiology 2021 April;40(2):87-96

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.20.04525-3


language: English

Influence of contralateral carotid artery occlusions on short- and long-term outcomes of carotid artery stenting: a retrospective single-center analysis and review of literature

Renato CASANA 1, 2 , Maurizio DOMANIN 3, 4, Chiara MALLOGGI 2, Valerio S. TOLVA 5, Andrea ODERO Jr 1, Daniele BISSACCO 3, Santi TRIMARCHI 3, 4, Vincenzo SILANI 6, 7, Gianfranco PARATI 8, 9

1 Department of Surgery, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy; 2 Laboratory of Research in Vascular Surgery, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy; 3 Vascular Surgery Unit, IRCCS, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; 4 Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; 5 Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Policlinico di Monza, Monza, Monza-Brianza, Italy; 6 Department of Neurology-Stroke and Neuroscience, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Ospedale San Luca, Milan, Italy; 7 Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; 8 Department of Cardiovascular, Neural and Metabolic Sciences, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, San Luca Hospital, Milan, Italy; 9 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Monza-Brianza, Italy

BACKGROUND: In the current literature, correlations between a contralateral carotid artery occlusion (CCO) with mortality and major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE) rates after carotid artery stenting (CAS) are often described with controversial conclusions. Moreover, long-term results of mortality, MACCE and restenosis rate are scarcely reported. This study examined the association between a CCO and the short- and long-term outcomes after CAS.
METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients with CCO and without (No-CCO) who underwent between 2010 and 2017 to a CAS procedure in a single institution were retrospectively evaluated. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate mortality and MACCE rates in the short-term (defined as the occurrence during hospitalization and within 30-day) and after 3-year follow-up. The secondary aim of the study was to examine the restenosis rates in the short- and long-term period.
RESULTS: The overall success of CAS was 99.3% and the 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 0.7% (one death). About MACCE, there were no major strokes in the CCO groups and 1 (1.4%) in the No-CCO group (P=1.00). The rate of 30-day minor strokes was 1.4% (1 patient) in the CCO group and 2.7% (2 patients) in the No-CCO group (P=1.00). In the 3-year follow-up, death occurred in 11 CCO vs. 6 No-CCO patients, respectively (15.1% vs. 8.2%, P=0.30). Regarding MACCE, major stroke occurred in 6 CCO vs. 2 No-CCO patients (8.2% vs. 2.7%, P=0.27), minor stroke in 6 CCO vs. 6 No-CCO (8.2% vs. 8.2%, P=1.0) and myocardial infarction in 6 CCO (8.2%) vs. 3 No-CCO patients (8.2 vs. 4.1%, P=0.49), respectively. Regarding the 30-day restenosis rate, it was observed in one patient (1.4%) in the CCO group while no cases were recorded in the No-CCO group, respectively (P=1.00). In the 3-year follow-up, greater than >50% restenosis was observed in 7 patients (9.6%) in the CCO group and in one patient (1.4%) in the No-CCO group (P=0.06), respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that CCO patients had a lower 3-year freedom from restenosis rate with respect to the No-CCO group (87.6% vs. 98.6%, P=0.024). A Cox regression model on 3-year restenosis highlighted female gender and hypertension to be statistically significant predictors of restenosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a preexisting CCO did not show a significative increased risk of procedural adverse events after CAS both in the immediate and long-term follow-up, but on the long term they are more likely to experience restenosis. CCO condition should be considered always as a clinical manifestation of a more aggressive carotid atherosclerosis.

KEY WORDS: Carotid arteries; Carotid artery diseases; Stents

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