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SPECIAL ARTICLE  VENOUS DISEASE Freefree

International Angiology 2020 April;39(2):118-24

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.20.04341-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

CEAP clinical classes C0S-C4: differences, similarities and role of Ruscus + HMC + vitamin C in patients with chronic venous disease

Stavros K. KAKKOS 1 , J. Jérôme GUEX 2, Marzia LUGLI 3, Andrew N. NICOLAIDES 4

1 Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital of Patras, Patras, Greece; 2 European Board of Phlebology, Gattières, France; 3 National UEMS Reference Training Center in Phlebology, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hesperia Hospital, Modena, Italy; 4 Department of Surgery, University of Nicosia Medical School, Nicosia, Cyprus



Since the publication of the CEAP classification, new research has enriched our knowledge; notably on the heritability of CVD and the genetic and environmental factors involved in this condition, as well as the symptoms apparent within the spectrum of the CEAP clinical classes and the benefits of medical treatment. Using the CEAP classification as a special theme, a symposium with the same title as the present paper was held at the annual meeting of the 2019 European Venous Forum. The lectures presented much valuable information, from which some key points can be extracted. The influence of environmental factors was demonstrated, and the fact that a large amount of information can be obtained from comprehensive history taking. There is robust evidence for heritability. Many candidate genes/loci have been identified, potentially offering new targets for treatment. More research is needed, notably using genome-wide association studies and also on microbiota, which may play a role in CVD through the inflammation pathway. Ruscus + HMC + vitamin C acts by increasing venous and lymphatic tone, protecting microcirculation, and reducing inflammation. It improves quality of life in C0S to C3 CVD patients, while a review of clinical studies and a meta-analysis have confirmed its clinical efficacy across a wide spectrum of CVD clinical classes: C0S, C1S, C2, C3 and C4. It has been awarded a Grade 1A recommendation by the international guidelines.


KEY WORDS: Genetics; Blood vessels; Varicose veins; Lipodermatosclerosis

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