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REVIEW  PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE Editor’s choice • Freefree

International Angiology 2019 February;38(1):62-9

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.18.04051-8

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Diagnostic methods for measurement of peripheral blood flow during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes and peripheral artery disease: a systematic review

Frederik L. EIKEN 1, Brian L. PEDERSEN 1 , Niels BÆKGAARD 1, Jonas P. EIBERG 1, 2, 3

1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet 3111, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 Copenhagen Academy of Medical Education and Simulation (CAMES), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark



INTRODUCTION: Measurement of systolic ankle and to some extent toe pressure in patients suffering from combined type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) face several obstacles due to complex changes in the vascular bed. The aim of this review was to address the current literature on blood flow during exercise in patients with PAD and T2DM and assess the feasibility of these methods to diagnose and grade arterial insufficiency.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the PubMed and EMBASE databases, supplemented by hand searching was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies evaluating methods to investigate peripheral blood flow in patients with PAD and T2DM during exercise were included.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total nine eligible studies consisting of 1105 non-diabetic PAD patients, 336 diabetic PAD patients, 161 diabetic patients without PAD and 69 healthy controls were included in the review. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was described in three studies, transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (TcpO2) in two and the following methods described in single studies: thermodilution, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), scintigraphy and TcpO2 in combination with ultrasound. These studies shows that patients with PAD and T2DM compared with patients with only PAD suffers different atherosclerotic lesions characterised by increased arterial stiffness and microcirculation abnormalities, not well differentiated by pressure measurement alone. Investigating patients with PAD and T2DM during exercise reveals that NIRS, TcpO2, CEUS, and scintigraphy have distinct advantages over ankle and toe-pressure.
CONCLUSIONS: Using methods like NIRS, TcpO2, CEUS and scintigraphy, peripheral blood flow during exercise can be measured at a detailed level and potentially improve future severity grading in patients with combined T2DM and PAD.


KEY WORDS: Blood circulation - Diabetes mellitus - Peripheral artery disease - Exercise

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