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International Angiology 2014 December;33(6):565-72


language: English

Time course analysis of brachial artery flow mediated dilatation in subjects with gingival inflammation

Carallo C. 1, Irace C. 1, Tripolino C. 1, De Franceschi M. S. 1, 2, Procopio A. 1, Crispino A. 2, Fortunato L. 2, Gnasso A. 1

1 Metabolic Diseases Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, “Magna Græcia” University, Catanzaro, Italy; 2 Institute of Dentistry, “Magna Græcia” University, Catanzaro, Italy


AIM: Several investigations report an inverse association between periodontal disease and endothelial function measured by brachial artery Flow-Mediated-Dilatation (FMD) technique. These studies examined endothelial function by using the traditional approach to FMD calculation, that is from diameters assessed at 60 seconds after deflation. Nevertheless, possible relationship between gingival inflammation and endothelial dysfunction observed over this temporal threshold remains still unexplored. The purpose of our study was to explore the relationship between gingival inflammation and endothelial function, by considering the time course of brachial FMD.
METHODS: Forty-six free-living white subjects, participating in a cardiovascular disease prevention campaign, were enrolled. FMD was measured at 60s and at 2 and 3 min after forearm ischemia. Maximal FMD was calculated (Peak FMD), for each patient. Gingival Index (GI) was evaluated as measure of gingival inflammation.
RESULTS: In univariate analyses, GI was associated with both FMD at 60 sec (r=-0.30, P=0.038) and Peak FMD (r=-0.41, P=0.004). In multiple regression analyses including GI, age, gender, and known risk factors for atherosclerosis, only GI and age were independently and inversely associated with Peak FMD and FMD at 60 s, but this association was stronger with Peak FMD. Moreover, when we divided subjects on the basis of GI value, patients with GI > 1 presented lower Peak FMD and higher prevalence of absent FMD.
CONCLUSION: The present study extends previous observations about the negative effects of periodontal disease on endothelial function, highlighting the importance of the evaluation of time course of vascular reactivity.

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