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International Angiology 2005 March;24(1):89-94


language: English

Arterial distensibility, intima media thickness and pulse wave velocity after renal transplantation and in dialysis normotensive patients

Posadzy-Malaczyñska A. 1, Kosch M. 2, Hausberg M. 2, Rahn K. H. 2, Stanisic G. 3, Malaczynski P. 3, Gluszek J. 1, Tykarski A. 1

1 Department of Hypertension, Internal Medicine and Angiology, Medical School of Sciences, Poznan, Poland 2 Medical Polyclinic, University of Münster, Münster, Germany 3 Department of Vascular Surgery, Medical School of Sciences, Poznan, Poland


Aim. Structural and mechanical properties of the arterial wall are altered in patients with renal failure. The ageing process of the arterial wall appears to be accelerated in patients with end-stage renal failure. The mechanisms responsible for reduced arterial compliance and distensibility in dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients without hypertension remain to be evaluated.
Methods. Thirty-five normotensive dialysis patients (D), 35 normotensive renal transplant recipients (T) and 35 healthy volunteers (N) matched for age, sex and blood pressure as controls were enrolled into the study. The arterial blood pressure of all patients was <140/90 mmHg. The dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients were eligible for the study if the serum creatinine level was <2 mg/dL. In all subjects, fasting concentrations of serum creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and hemoglobin and glucose were determined at enrollment to the study. Blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was evaluated using non invasive automatic Complior device. The vessel wall properties of the left common carotid artery were studied using multigate pulsed Doppler system. With this method, the end-diastolic diameter (d) and the systolic increase of vessel diameter (distension ∆d) were measured. From these data the relative systolic increase of vessel diameter (∆d/d) and the arterial wall distensibility coefficient (DC) were calculated.
Results. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and central pulse pressure (CPP) were significantly higher in T than in D and N group, respectively 138±18 mmHg and 59±16 mmHg vs 128±13 mmHg and 49±12 mmHg and 132.12 mmHg and 51±10 mmHg. The d did not change significantly between all groups. The distension ∆d was significantly lower in patients group D and T, respectively 466±38 µm and 511±37 µm than in controls. Similarly ∆d/d was in these groups significantly lower than in healthy volunteers, respectively D 6.33±0.5%, T 6.9±0.4% vs N 9.15±0.5%. DC was also significantly lower in D and T than in N groups, respectively D 17.91±1.5 10-3/kPa and T 18.92±1.3 10-3/kPa and N 24.28±0.51-3/kPa. Significant differences were found in the increase of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery for dialyzed patients and renal transplant recipients in contrast to the control group, but there were no differences between the patients. PWV in both patient groups was statistically significant higher than in control group correspondingly D 11.1±1.03 m/s and T 13.3±1.13 m/s, N 9.4±0.89 m/s. There was a significant correlation between the change of DC, PWV and CPP in T group (n=35; r=-0.43; P<0.01 and n=35; r=0.48; P<0.05). In the T group also an important correlation between PWV and IMT complex (n=35; r=0.49, P<0.001) was found.
Conclusion. The elastic and structural properties of arterial wall in dialysis patients and renal recipients are decreased. End-stage renal disease accelerates arterial stiffening despite of arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Renal transplantation does not reverse loss of elastic and morphologic properties of arteries found in patients with end-stage renal insufficiency.

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