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Gazzetta Medica Italiana - Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2021 April;180(4):121-7

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-3660.19.04297-9

Copyright © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Reliability of experienced and novice raters conducting clinical balance tests in young physically active individuals

Nontawit UDOMPANICH 1, 2, Kanok-On THANASOOTR 1, Uraiwan CHATCHAWAN 1, Raoyrin CHANAVIRUT 1, 2, Torkamol HUNSAWONG 1, 2

1 School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2 Physical Therapy in Improving Functional Ability Group, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand



BACKGROUND: Four clinical balance tests are commonly used in physically active population including the foot lift test (FLT), the time in balance test (TIBT), the modified star excursion balance test in the posteromedial direction (modified SEBT-PM), and the side hop test (SHT). However, a reliability study is needed to ensure the consistency of these tests when performed by novice raters. Thus, this study examined the inter- and intra-rater reliability of experienced and novice raters for these tests.
METHODS: Eighteen volunteers with a mean age of 24.3±4.32 years were recruited. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was analyzed using one expert and two novice raters. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and minimal detectable changes (MDCs) were calculated for inter- and intra-rater reliability.
RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability was excellent for all clinical balance tests (ICC 0.94-0.98). Intra-rater reliability was excellent for FLT (ICC3,3 0.97-0.99), good for TIBT (ICC3,3 0.82-0.85) and modified SEBT-PM (ICC3,3 0.78-0.87), and moderate-to-good for SHT (ICC3,2 0.68-0.76).
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of inter-rater reliability suggests that novice raters can easily use the current tests. However, further analysis is needed to determine the confounding factors of intra-rater reliability for TIBT and SHT.


KEY WORDS: Postural balance; Psychometrics; Classical article

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