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Gazzetta Medica Italiana - Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2020 September;179(9):528-37

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-3660.19.04159-7


language: English

Healthy diet and self-care activities adherence improved life-quality and type 2 diabetes mellitus management in Turkish adults

Angelos K. SIKALIDIS 1 , Ebru-Pelin KARABOĞA 2

1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA; 2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Istanbul Yeni Yuzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide while over 7 million diabetic individuals live in Turkey. Diabetics require lifelong personal care to reduce risk of developing long-term complications. Good self-care adherence may improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management, life-quality and increase longevity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of healthy diet and self-care behaviors on health-related quality of life and T2DM management efficiency in Turkish patients.
METHODS: Pilot facility-based, cross-sectional observational study, conducted at three healthcare centers in Istanbul, Turkey. 36-item short-term health surveys (SF-36) were administered to T2DM patients, for assessing life-quality. Summary of diabetes self-care activities measure (SDSCA) determined self-care activities adherence (healthy diet, physical activity, medication, blood glucose testing, foot-care, and smoking). After SDSCA grouping of results, life quality scores, HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were evaluated. The following three health institutions were used: i) Fit Art Nutrition & Dietetic Consultancy, ii) Gazi Osman Paşa Hospital, and iii) Bakırköy Mazhar Osman Mental Health - Neurological Diseases, Teaching & Research Hospital. A total of 55 T2DM diagnosed adults with a 10% drop-out rate yielding a working sample of 50 patients of whom 56% female, with average age 52.1 years participated in the study.
RESULTS: Good self-care activities’ adherers obtained higher scores in life-quality and demonstrated lower HbA1c levels than poor adherers (P<0.05). Furthermore, smoking was a predictor of life-quality and glucose management.
CONCLUSIONS: Self-care activities adherence including healthy diet improved glycemic control and health-related life-quality in T2DM patients. Thus, emphasizing self-care activities adherence yields more effective T2DM management, while improving life-quality in a cost-effective manner.

KEY WORDS: Quality of life; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Turkey

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