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Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2018 May;177(5):219-28

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-3660.17.03533-1

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Factors affecting immune responses to vaccines

Kousar SMAILNEJAD GANJI 1, Iraj MOHAMMADZADEH 2, Mousa MOHAMMADNIA-AFROUZI 1, Soheil EBRAHIMPOUR 3, Mehdi SHAHBAZI 1

1 Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; 2 Non-communicable Pediatric Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; 3 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran


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Three million children die every year from infectious diseases that are preventable with available vaccines. Current Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines play enormous roles in preventing mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases in early life. Although vaccine formulations, immunization schedules, the quality and quantity of vaccine antigen(s), the number of doses, and the immunization routes are similar in most countries, immune responses to vaccinations differ. The factors that lead to variation in vaccine efficacy are complex, and include both host and environmental factors. This review focuses on the main factors involved in vaccine responses. By understanding the roles of these factors, it is possible to improve vaccine efficacy.


KEY WORDS: Vaccines - Immune system - Environmental exposure - Host-derived factors

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