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Minerva Gastroenterology 2022 Feb 18

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5985.22.03152-7

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Modulation of the gut microbiota: opportunities and regulatory aspects

Davide G. RIBALDONE 1 , Rinaldo PELLICANO 2, Sharmila FAGOONEE 3, Giovanni C. ACTIS 4

1 Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 2 Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy; 3 Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging (CNR) c/o Molecular Biotechnology Center, Turin, Italy; 4 The Medical Center Practice Office, Turin, Italy


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The human gut is an intensively colonized organ containing microorganisms that can be health-promoting or pathogenic. This feature led to the development of functional foods aiming to fortify the former category at the expense of the latter. Since long, cultured products, including probiotics fortification, have been used for humans as live microbial feed additions. This review presents some of the microbes used as probiotics and discusses how supplementation with probiotics may help initiate and/or restore eubiotic composition of gut microbiota. Additionally, it considers safety and regulatory aspects of probiotics.


KEY WORDS: Microbiome; Nutraceuticals; Probiotics

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