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MINERVA GASTROENTEROLOGICA E DIETOLOGICA

A Journal on Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Dietetics


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Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica 2017 September;63(3):198-204

DOI: 10.23736/S1121-421X.17.02399-6

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Complexity and diversity of gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes

Patrizia ZENTILIN 1 , Elisa MARABOTTO 1, Gaia PELLEGATTA 1, Claudia COPPO 1, Manuele FURNARI 1, Edoardo SAVARINO 2, Vincenzo SAVARINO 1

1 Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2 Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy


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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition which develops when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms, impairs quality of life, or leads to mucosal damage or complications. There are two main phenotypic presentations of GERD, the erosive (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), with the latter one representing up to 70% of GERD spectrum. Moreover, patients with GERD can be clinically subdivided into two distinct syndromes: patients with esophageal and extraesophageal symptoms. The diagnosis of NERD should be supported by the evidence that symptoms are due to reflux episodes on the basis of an excess of acid into the esophagus or a positive correlation between symptoms and acid and/or weakly acidic reflux episodes as evidenced by 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring. Patients with normal esophageal acid exposure and no correlation between heartburn and any kind of chemical reflux are considered affected by functional heartburn and do not pertain to the realm of NERD. They do not usually respond to PPI therapy as further empirical criterion and are included in the large group of functional digestive disorders with the expression of altered generation or perception of symptoms at the esophageal level and can often overlap with functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome.


KEY WORDS: Gastroesophageal reflux - Heartburn - Esophagitis

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Publication History

Issue published online: June 19, 2017
Article first published online: March 7, 2017

Cite this article as

Zentilin P, Marabotto E, Pellegatta G, Coppo C, Furnari M, Savarino E, et al. Complexity and diversity of gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2017;63:198-204. DOI: 10.23736/S1121-421X.17.02399-6

Corresponding author e-mail

pzentilin@unige.it