Home > Journals > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine > Past Issues > Articles online first > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2020 Jan 23



To subscribe
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian


Publication history
Cite this article as



European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2020 Jan 23

DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.20.06079-7


language: English

Movement disorders - Childhood Rating Scale 4-18 revised in children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy

Roberta BATTINI 1, 2 , Giuseppina SGANDURRA 1, 2 , Valentina MENICI 2, Roberta SCALISE 2, Ilaria OLIVIERI 2, Roberta DI PIETRO 2, Simona LUCIBELLO 3, Maria T. GIANNINI 4, Giovanni CIONI 1, 2, and MD-CRS Group 

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2 Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa, Italy; 3 Pediatric Neurology, Department of Woman and Child Health and Public Health, Child Health Area, Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 4 Department of Human Neuroscience, Child Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy


BACKGROUND: Movement Disorders - Childhood Rating Scale 4-18 (MD-CRS 4-18) is a tool aimed to evaluate movement disorders in developmental age, validated since 2008 and applied in literature. Psychometric properties, including inter- and intra-reliability and construct validity have been evaluated over time on children and adolescents with different types of movement disorders.
AIM: Aim of the study is to revise the Movement Disorders - Childhood Rating Scale 4-18 (MD-CRS 4-18 R) and evaluate its psychometric properties, compared to previous version of the scale, in Dyskinetic Cerebral palsy.
DESIGN: This is a measurement-focused study of video recorder sessions.
SETTING: Video session carried out inpatient and outpatient.
POPULATION: This measurement-focused study was carried out on a cohort of 57 participants with DCP (37 males; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 3y 8mo) evaluated through video-recorded sessions by experienced scorers using MD-CRS 4-18 and MR-CRS 4-18 R.
METHODS: Inter-rater reliability, intra-rater reliability of MD-CRS 4-18 and MD-CRS 4-18 R were performed.
RESULTS: This study supports the relevant contribution of MD-CRS 4-18 R to identify the severity of movement disorders in dyskinetic cerebral palsy, as indicated by the higher ICC values on Index II compared to previous MD-CRS 4-18 results. Standard Error Measurement (SEM) and Minimally Detectable Difference (MDD) of MD-CRS 4-18 R in DCP were all very low, with SEMs ranging from 0.01 to 0.02 and MDD from 0.03 to 0.06.
CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained with MD-CRS 4-18 R are in accordance with previous scale on individuals with movement disorders due to different aetiologies, tested with MD-CRS 4-18. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: MD-CRS 4-18 R is able to verify natural history of the disease and represents a standardized clinical outcome measure in the evaluation and follow-up of children with DCP. Also MD-CRS 4-18 Revised form is a feasible tool, now easier to understand than the previous one, more available for incoming clinical trials.

KEY WORDS: Dyskinetic cerebral pals; MD-CRS 4-18; MD-CRS 4-18 R; Psychometric properties

top of page