Home > Journals > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine > Past Issues > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2019 February;55(1) > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2019 February;55(1):89-94



Publishing options
To subscribe
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian


Publication history
Cite this article as


ORIGINAL ARTICLE   Free accessfree

European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2019 February;55(1):89-94

DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.18.05314-5


language: English

Validity and reliability of Italian version of the Non-Communicating Children’s Pain Checklist: revised version

Massimiliano MURGIA 1, Rosanna IZZO 1 , Alessandra BETTINELLI 1, Chiara DI MAGGIO 2, Martina DE ANGELIS 2, Massimiliano MANGONE 1, Marco PAOLONI 1, Andrea BERNETTI 1, Andrea TORQUATI 1, Vincenzo LEUZZI 2, Valter SANTILLI 1

1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 2 Department of Pediatrics, Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy

BACKGROUND: The Non-Communicating Children Pain Check List-Revised (NCCPC-R) is a clinical assessment tool used to assess and measure pain in children aged 3 to 18 years, with mental and intellectual disabilities, incapable to speak.
AIM: Aim of our study was to test the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the NCCPC-R in children with cognitive impairment, in order to obtain a valid tool for pain assessment in these children.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
SETTING: Pediatric Outpatient of Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine Department, and Pediatrics, Child Neurology and Psychiatry Department, Sapienza University, Rome.
POPULATION: 55 non-communicating children, with severe intellectual disability, aged 3-18 years.
METHODS: The guidelines for “translation, adaptation, and validation of instruments or scales for cross-cultural healthcare research” were used to translate the scale, which was administered by the parents/caregivers twice for 2 consecutive days, in association with NRS (Numerical Rating Scale). The reliability of the scale was evaluated using the intra and inter-class correlation coefficient (ICCs); Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to test the internal validity of the scale; “Receiver Operating Characteristic” (ROC) curves were used to compare pain-free scores with pain scores, determining threshold scores; Pearson correlation between NCCPC-R and NRS values was measured.
RESULTS: The InterCC between the first and the second interviewer at T0 was 0,97, the IntraCC of the first interviewer at T0-T1 was 0,89, showing a high correlation; the Cronbach alpha coefficient at T0 was 0,97, showing a high scale’s validity. Pearson correlation between NRS and NCCPC-R values at T0 was 0,54 showing a medium level of agreement (P<0,0001). AUC (area under the curve) obtained by ROC curve at T0 was 0,807 (P=0,001), with sensitivity 95,2 and specificity 55,6, while a T1 AUC was 0,814 (P<0,001), with sensitivity 86,49, specificity 78,57.
CONCLUSIONS: The Italian version of NCCPC-R scale could be used to asses pain in non-communicating patients with mental and intellectual disabilities, showing a good correlation when compared to the NRS.
CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: The use of NCCPC-R scale in daily life made parents/caregivers able to discriminate the presence/absence of pain in non-communicating children, based on the scores obtained with the questionnaire.

KEY WORDS: Communication - Child - Parents - Pain - Rehabilitation

top of page