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European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2018 June;54(3):486-98

DOI: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04667-6

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Sonographic guide for botulinum toxin injections of the lower limb: EUROMUSCULUS/USPRM spasticity approach

Bayram KAYMAK 1, Murat KARA 1 , Fatih TOK 2, Alper M. ULAŞLI 3, Gökhan T. ÖZTÜRK 3, Ke-Vin CHANG 4, 5, Ming-Yen HSİAO 4, Chen-Yu HUNG 5, Arzu YAĞIZ ON 6, Levent ÖZÇAKAR 1

1 Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey; 2 Gaziler Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3 Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital and Community and Geriatric Research Center, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 6 Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ege University Medical School, İzmir, Turkey


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The pertinent literature lacks overt technical data for optimal lower limb muscle botulinum toxin injections using ultrasound (US) imaging. Therefore, this guide is prepared for the commonly injected muscles of the lower limb and the pelvic girdle mainly in spasticity. It includes clinical information, anatomical description and explanation regarding the US imaging of several muscles. The figures have been organized to orient the readers on the innervation zones, injection sites, probe positionings and the US images simultaneously.


KEY WORDS: Lower extremity - Muscle spasticity - Innervation - Ultrasonography - Botulinum toxins

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