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European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2016 December;52(6):887-901

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM basic scanning protocols revisited in children

Ke V. CHANG 1, Şule ŞAHIN ONAT 2, Chia W. LEE 3, Murat KARA 4, Chen Y. HUNG 1, Levent ÖZÇAKAR 4

1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 2 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4 Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey


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High-resolution ultrasound (US) has been widely used in the evaluation of adult musculoskeletal disorders with several established high-quality scanning protocols. Despite the fact that US use is even more advantageous in the pediatric population, normal sonographic images of the major joints are lacking in children. Due to the excessive amount of hyaline cartilage, the bony landmarks can hardly be recognized. In this regard, familiarization with the normal ultrasonographic images is crucial before its wide/prompt application for the differential diagnosis of pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate the normal ultrasonographic images of major joints in normal children in comparison with adults’ findings. The images used in this paper have been acquired from a 5-year-old and a 8-year-old child according to the EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM basic scanning protocols.


KEY WORDS: Ultrasonography - Musculoskeletal development - Child - Cartilage - Joints

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