Home > Journals > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine > Past Issues > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2014 October;50(5) > European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2014 October;50(5):525-32





A Journal on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation after Pathological Events

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SIMFER), European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM), European Union of Medical Specialists - Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Section (UEMS-PRM), Mediterranean Forum of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (MFPRM), Hellenic Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EEFIAP)
In association with International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM)
Indexed/Abstracted in: CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,827




European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2014 October;50(5):525-32


language: English

Management of stroke patients submitted to botulinum toxin type A therapy: a Delphi survey of an Italian expert panel of specialist injectors

Franceschini M. 1, Iocco M. 2, Molteni F. 3, Santamato A. 4, Smania N. 5

1 Department of Rehabilitation, IRCCS San Raffaele-Pisana, Rome, Italy; 2 P&RM Unit, Medical & Surgical Sciences Department, “Magna Graecia” University, Catanzaro, Italy; 3 H.Valduce, Villa Beretta, Costa Masnaga (LC), Italy; 4 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, “OORR Hospital”, University of Foggia, Italy; 5 Neuromotor and Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Centre, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Italy


BACKGROUND: Spasticity is a common disabling symptom of several neurological conditions including stroke. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection represents the gold standard therapy for focal spasticity. Post-stroke management of patients receiving BTX-A therapy has been variously investigated, but general agreement on how and when to implement rehabilitation is lacking.
AIM: To perform a national survey of experts on the most appropriate rehabilitation procedures after BTX-A therapy for the focal treatment of spasticity.
DESIGN: The study employed the Delphi technique through the COSMO project (Consensus on Post-Injection Management in Post-stroke Spasticity).
METHODS: Italian neurologists and physiatrists with experience in BTX-A therapy were selected to participate in the survey. Their anonymous opinions on key issues in treatment strategies in post-stroke spasticity were collected in three sequential rounds facilitated by a web platform. Consensus on a given issue was defined as agreed opinion by at least 66% of the survey participants.
RESULTS: In all, 44 Italian experts were involved. Positive consensus was reached on the need to start rehabilitation during the first week after BTX-A injection therapy, with a rehabilitation program comprising both stretching combined with electrical stimulation and exercise therapy. Functional surgery may be considered only after 12-24 months in cases of BTX-A therapy failure. The use of commercial or custom-made orthoses in selected cases was recommended. The appropriate time interval between two BTX-A injections is 3-6 months, and clinical assessment should be performed 1 month after injection.
CONCLUSION: The results of this national survey confirm that clinical experts on the use of BTX-A therapy for spasticity after stroke agree on the need to initiate rehabilitation treatment immediately after BTX-A injection: muscle stretching exercises, eventually combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation, may enhance the effect of BTX-A therapy. Outcome after BTX-A therapy should be assessed at repeated follow-up visits.
CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: This expert panel survey can provide guidance for clinicians in the assessment of patients treated with BTX-A therapy.

top of page

Publication History

Cite this article as

Corresponding author e-mail