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Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia 2017 December;152(6):569-77

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-0488.16.05307-4

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Analysis of immunological profile, clinical features and response to treatment in pemphigus

Federico BARDAZZI, Riccardo BALESTRI, Alma ISMAILI, Michelangelo LA PLACA, Alessia BARISANI , Annalisa PATRIZI

Division of Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy


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BACKGROUND: Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of serum autoantibodies against Desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3. It can affect the skin and/or the mucous membranes. Some authors found a correlation between the serum levels of autoantibodies, disease activity and clinical phenotype of pemphigus. Anti Dsg1 autoantibodies appear related to cutaneous phenotype, anti Dsg3 autoantibodies to mucosal involvement.
METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, in patients with pemphigus, the serum levels of anti-Dsg1 and 3 antibodies were determined with enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay at diagnosis and after 6 months of different therapies. The correlations between levels of autoantibodies, clinical phenotype, clinical activity and response to therapy, were investigated.
RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were included. Clinical phenotypes were: mucosal in 17 patients; mucous-cutaneous in 11; and cutaneous in 7. The status of anti-Dsg1 autoantibodies was significantly related to the cutaneous and mucous-cutaneous phenotypes both at diagnosis and after 6 months. The status of anti-Dsg3 autoantibodies was significantly related to the mucosal and mucous-cutaneous phenotypes only at first evaluation. No significant correlations were found between disease activity and the status of autoantibodies. No significant variations of autoantibody levels (between first and second sample) were found with regard to different therapies, except for the variation of anti-Dsg1 autoantibodies in one patient treated with systemic steroids and methotrexate.
CONCLUSIONS: A correlation between serum levels of autoantibodies and clinical phenotype was found. Further studies over a longer follow-up period may better characterize the correlation between autoantibody levels, clinical activity and response to different therapies of pemphigus.


KEY WORDS: Pemphigus - Phenotype - Desmogleins - Autoantibodies - Therapeutics

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